The most densely populated country in Africa, Rwanda has an estimated 9.7 million people. In just 50 years, Rwanda’s population has multiplied eightfold. More than half the population lives below the poverty line. In addition, most people live in rural areas and are engaged in subsistence agriculture. Per capita income averages $230 US. In 1994, a genocide resulted in the deaths of one million Rwandans and the displacement of an additional two million people.

Health Care System
In recent years, Rwanda’s public health care system has been decentralized to better coordinate services among hospitals, local health centers, and communities. The system faces many resources challenges, including chronic shortages of qualified physicians and nurses, and poor clinical and laboratory infrastructure, especially in rural areas. High rates of maternal and child illnesses, as well as the disease burden of HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis, limit life expectancy to 45.5 years of age.

HIV/AIDS in Rwanda
Rwanda has an estimated 190,000 people living with HIV/AIDS or an adult HIV seroprevalence rate of 3.1 percent. An estimated 210,000 children have been orphaned due to HIV/AIDS. Currently, approximately 45,000 people in Rwanda are receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART).

ICAP in Rwanda
Since 2002, ICAP has been working in partnership with the Government of Rwanda, specifically the Ministry of Health’s Treatment, Research, and AIDS Centre, to support the scale up of HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment programs. Currently, ICAP supports HIV/AIDS services at health facilities and laboratories in Kigali and Western Province.

Support for Programmatic Activities
ICAP supports an array of capacity-building activities, including intensive mentoring and training programs for healthcare providers, laboratory technicians, and social workers. ICAP also works closely with community-based associations of people living with HIV/AIDS to strengthen the delivery of services, including counseling and testing and treatment adherence. Other ICAP-supported activities include:

  • Infrastructure improvements and renovation of clinics, laboratories, and pharmacies
  • Pediatric and adult HIV/AIDS care and treatment, including provision of ART
  • Integrated tuberculosis/HIV care and treatment
  • Early-infant diagnosis of HIV
  • Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV
  • Voluntary counseling and testing
  • Peer support programs
  • Targeted evaluations
  • Nutrition programs

ICAP partners with public and faith-based district hospitals and health centers for service delivery in the following eight districts: Nyanrugenge, Kicukiro, Gasabo, Ngororero, Rubavu, Nyabihu, Rutsiro, and Karongi. Other service delivery partners include Butare University Teaching Hospital, Kigali University Teaching Hospital, Avega Clinic, Carrefour Clinic, and TRAC.                       
Partners for national level work include TRAC, the Unité de Planification, Politiques et Renforcement des Capacités (UPDC), Programme National Intégré de Lutte contre la Lèpre et la Tuberculose, National Reference Laboratory, Rwandan Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS, ARBEF, and Bamporizi.


Map of ICAP-supported Sites in Rwanda