The East African country of Kenya has a population of 34.2 million people. Approximately one-third of its population lives in the country’s urban areas. Kenya has a per capita income of $471 US, among the highest in Africa.

Health Care System
Kenya’s healthcare system consists of a mix of public and private services staffed by more than 4,500 physicians and 37,000 nurses. The system is based on a referral system extending from Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi through provincial and district hospitals to rural health centers and dispensaries. A rapidly growing population within the reproductive age group and the HIV pandemic have put increasing strain on the country’s ability to provide basic health services to its people. The average life expectancy is 51 years of age.

HIV/AIDS in Kenya
Despite considerable success in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, an estimated 1 million Kenyans are HIV-infected, or about 4 percent of the population. HIV/AIDS accounts for more than half of all hospital admissions. In addition, HIV/AIDS has orphaned an estimated 1 million children in Kenya.

ICAP in Kenya
In 2004, ICAP, through a collaboration with Indiana University, began supporting the government of Kenya in its efforts to provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment at health facilities in the Western Region of the country. In 2006, with support from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), ICAP began supporting HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in the country’s Central Province and, more recently, in the southern region of Eastern Province.

In partnership with the Ministry of Health, ICAP supports an array of capacity-building activities. They include renovations of clinics and laboratories and provision of equipment and supplies; clinical training and supportive supervision of multidisciplinary teams; assistance with laboratory, pharmacy, and medical records systems; and strengthening of services to enhance enrollment, follow-up, and adherence.

Support for Programmatic Activities

ICAP supports a full range of HIV/AIDS services, including:

  • Pediatric and adult HIV/AIDS care and treatment, including provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART)
  • Early-infant diagnosis capability using dried blood spot PCR technology
  • Care for HIV-infected pregnant women and their children within Family Care Clinics
  • Integrated tuberculosis (TB)/HIV care and treatment
  • Provider-initiated counseling and testing
  • Provision of insecticide-treated nets to prevent malaria in people living with HIV/AIDS
  • HIV/AIDS support groups, including support for health care providers living with HIV/AIDS
  • Support for treatment adherence
  • Community outreach


    In support of the scale-up of HIV/AIDS services in Kenya, ICAP has established partnerships with:
  • National AIDS and Sexually Transmission Diseases Control Programme (NASCOP) – a division of the Ministry of Health’s Department of Preventive and Promotive Services which coordinates HIV and sexually transmitted infection services in the country.
  • Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) – provides administrative support to ICAP. Currently, ICAP is collaborating with KEMRI on a nutrition study of HIV-infected people starting ART
  • AIDS, Population, and Health Integrated Assistance Program (APHIA II) – a consortium of Pathfinder International, Network of AIDS Researchers in East and Southern Africa (NARESA) and JIPHEGO, an international organization affiliated with The Johns Hopkins University. APHIA II is funded by the United States Agency for International Development to support HIV/AIDS and TB prevention, HIV care and treatment, reproductive health/family planning, malaria, and maternal and child health services.
  • Clinton Foundation – supports pediatric HIV/AIDS services, including purchase of pediatric drug formulations and transport of dried blood samples to a central laboratory for early infant diagnosis.
  • AIDS Relief – a consortium of organizations including the Catholic Medical Mission Board, Catholic Relief Services, Futures Group, and the University of Maryland.

Map of ICAP-supported Sites in Kenya