Tuberculosis/HIV Care and Treatment

HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are intertwined diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV is fuelling a TB epidemic. From 1990 to 2003, the TB incidence rate rose from 146 to 345 per 100,000 people, coinciding with the precipitous rise in HIV infections. In some countries, more than half of those with active TB are co-infected with HIV. TB also is the leading cause of death in HIV-infected people.

ICAP supports efforts to integrate national TB and HIV control programs and to develop complementary TB/HIV clinical programs. Specific ICAP-supported activities include:

  • Expanded integrated TB/HIV care and treatment programs;
  • TB/HIV model centers to develop best practices for integrated TB/HIV care and treatment;
  • Identification and referral of patients with TB/HIV co-infection;
  • Strengthening pediatric TB/HIV care and treatment services, including TB screening and diagnostic tools for children and HIV testing for children with TB;
  • Training programs for clinicians on management of TB/HIV co-infection;
  • Enhanced monitoring and evaluation systems of TB/HIV care and treatment.

In addition, ICAP has developed clinical resources for the management of TB/HIV co-infection in resource-limited settings.